Difference between revisions of "Mutator"

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{{Other uses}}
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{{KFClassInfo|[[Object]] >> [[Actor]] >> [[Info]]|name=Mutator|pkg=Engine}}
[[Image:TVA Douglas Dam jack hammer.gif|thumb|Drilling a blast hole with a jackhammer]]
 
{{Refimprove|date=December 2008}}
 
  
A '''jackhammer''' is a [[pneumatic tool]] that combines a [[hammer]] directly with a [[chisel]].  It was invented by [[Charles Brady King]].<ref> [http://www.google.com/patents?id=g1hEAAAAEBAJ&printsec=abstract&zoom=4#v=onepage&q&f=false STEAM OR PNEUMATIC ENGINE] </ref> Hand-held jackhammers are typically powered by [[compressed air]], but some use [[electric motor]]s. Larger jackhammers, such as rig mounted hammers used on [[Heavy equipment (construction)|construction machinery]], are usually [[hydraulic]]ally powered. They are usually used to break up [[rock (geology)|rock]], [[pavement (material)|pavement]], and [[concrete]]. In modern terminology, a "jackhammer" does not have the capacity to drill rock.{{citation needed|date=April 2012}}
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==Description==
  
A jackhammer operates by driving an ''internal'' hammer up and down. The hammer is first driven down to strike the back of the ''bit'' and then back up to return the hammer to the original position to repeat the cycle. The bit usually recovers from the stroke by means of a [[spring (device)|spring]]. The effectiveness of the jackhammer is dependent on how much force is applied to the tool.
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''Taken from [http://udn.epicgames.com/Three/UT3Mods.html#Mutators UDN]'':
  
== History ==
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<blockquote>Mutators are mini-mods. They have limited functionality as defined by the Mutator class. Mutators should follow certain rules - rules that are established by the GameType. If these rules can't be followed or are too limiting, you should probably work on a GameType mod.</blockquote>
  
Pneumatic drills were developed in response to the needs of mining, quarrying, excavating, and tunneling.  The first "percussion drill" was made in 1848 and patented in 1849 by Jonathan J. Couch of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. <ref>Henry S. Drinker,''Tunneling, explosive compounds, and rock drills'' … (New York, New York:  John Wiley & Sons, 1878), [http://books.google.com/books?id=CJ0gAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA153#v=onepage&q&f=false pages 153-157].</ref>  In this drill, the drill bit passed through the piston of a steam engine.  The piston snagged the drill bit and hurled it against the rock face.  It was an experimental model.  In 1849, Couch's assistant, Joseph W. Fowle, filed a [[patent caveat|caveat]] for a percussion drill of his own design.  In Fowle’s drill, the drill bit was connected directly to the piston in the steam cylinder; specifically, the drill bit was connected to the piston’s [[crosshead]]. The drill also had a mechanism for turning the drill bit around its axis between strokes and for advancing the drill as the hole deepened.<ref>Drinker (1878), page 160.</ref>  By 1850 or 1851, Fowle was using compressed air to drive his drill, making it the first true pneumatic drill.<ref>Drinker (1878), page 164.</ref>
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<blockquote>The first rule is that Mutators should be able to work with any other Mutator - especially the ones that come with the game. If you write a "Vampire" Mutator that allows the player to drain life from an enemy he shoots, the Mutator should work well if combined with one of the Arena mutators or the No Powerups Mutator. This is one of the beneficial features of the Mutator system. They slightly change (or mutate) gameplay, allowing for interesting combinations.</blockquote>
  
The demand for pneumatic drills was driven especially by miners and tunnelers because steam engines required fires in order to operate and the ventilation in mines and tunnels was inadequate to vent the fires' fumes; there was also no way to convey steam over long distances (e.g., from the surface to the bottom of a mine); furthermore, mines and tunnels occasionally contained flammable explosive gases such as [[methane]]. By contrast, compressed air could be conveyed over long distances without loss of its energy, and after the compressed air had been used to power equipment, it could still serve to ventilate a mine or tunnel.
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<blockquote>The second rule is that Mutators should only change gameplay in a slight fashion. Although that's a vague way of putting it, you need to try and restrict your Mutator behavior. Careful Mutator design will increase the chances of your Mutator working with other mods and will decrease your support effort.</blockquote>
  
In Europe since the late 1840s, the [[Kingdom of Sardinia|king of Sardinia]], [[Charles Albert of Sardinia|Carlo Alberto]], had been contemplating the excavation of a {{convert|12|km|mi|adj=on|sp=us}} tunnel through [[Fréjus Rail Tunnel|Mount Fréjus]] in order to create a rail link between Italy and France, which would cross his realm.<ref>Drinker (1878), page 266.</ref><ref>The project was called the "Mount Cenis tunnel" although the tunnel actually passed under Mount Fréjus.</ref>  The need for a mechanical rock drill was obvious and this sparked research on pneumatic rock drills in Europe. A Frenchman, Cavé, designed, and in 1851 patented, a rock drill that used compressed air; however, the air had to be admitted manually to the cylinder during each stroke, so it was not successful.<ref>Drinker (1878), page 152.</ref>  In 1854, in England, Thomas Bartlett made and then patented (1855) a rock drill in which the drill bit was connected directly to the piston of a steam engine. In 1855 Bartlett demonstrated his drill, powered by compressed air, to officials of the Mt. Fréjus tunnel project.<ref>Drinker (1878), pages 168 and 266.</ref>  (In 1855, a German, Schumann, invented a similar pneumatic rock drill in Freiburg, Germany.<ref>Drinker (1878), pages 151-152.</ref>)  Bartlett’s drill was refined by the [[Savoy]]-born engineer [[Germain Sommeiller]] (1815-1871) and his colleagues, Grandis and Grattoni, by 1861.<ref>Drinker (1878), pages 169 and 266.</ref>  Thereafter, many inventors refined the pneumatic drill.<ref>See: Drinker (1878), page 168.  See also:  [http://books.google.com/books?id=U8aEAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA2#v=onepage&q&f=false page 2] of  Eustace M. Weston, ''Rock drills:  design, construction and use'' (New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1910).</ref>
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<blockquote>The third rule is that Mutators should share resources with other Mutators. If your Mutator implements the ModifyPlayer function, you need to call NextMutator.ModifyPlayer somewhere inside your version of the function. This ensures that any Mutator on the Mutator list after your mod gets a chance to deal with the function call. Failing to do this is poor programming style and not community-friendly.</blockquote>
  
==Terminology==
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Mutators provide an easy way to make small - and sometimes larger - changes to a game without having to run an entirely new [[gametype]]. They can be used to alter graphical features, add or remove enemies, change the rules, and so on.
The word "jackhammer" is used in [[North American English]] and [[Australia]], while "pneumatic drill" is used [[colloquially]] elsewhere in the [[English speaking world]], although strictly speaking a "pneumatic drill" refers to a [[pneumatic]]ally driven jackhammer.<ref>''How It Works'' - Horobin, Wendy; Marshall Cavendish Corporation, Third Edition, Page 1195</ref> In [[United Kingdom|Britain]], the term "jackhammer" usually refers to [[electromechanical]] version of the tool.{{Citation needed|date=June 2010}}
 
  
==Use==
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==Mutator tutorials==
A full-sized portable jackhammer is impractical for use against walls and steep slopes, except by a very strong man, as the user would have to both support the weight of the tool, and push the tool back against the work after each blow.  A technique developed by experienced workmen is a two-man team to overcome this obstacle of gravity: one man operates the hammer and the second assists by holding the hammer either on his shoulders or cradled in his arms. Both use their combined weight to push the bit into the workface. This method is commonly referred to as horizontal jackhammering.
 
  
Another method is overhead jackhammering, requiring strength conditioning and endurance to hold a smaller jackhammer, called a rivet buster, over one's head. To make overhead work safer a platform can be used. One such platform is a P.A.M. (Positioner Actuator Manipulator). This unit take all the weight and vibration from the user.
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*[[Creating A Basic Mutator]]
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*[[Mutator Essentials]]
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*[[Multiplayer Mutators]]
  
==Types==
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==List of common mutators==
===Pneumatic===
 
[[Image:Aa pneumatic drill compressor front.jpg|thumb|A compressor for running a pneumatic jackhammer]]
 
  
A pneumatic jackhammer, also known as a ''{{visible anchor|pneumatic drill}}'' or ''{{visible anchor|pneumatic hammer}}'',<ref>http://books.google.com/books?id=FXOtwx6IK_0C&pg=PA240</ref> is a jackhammer that uses compressed air as the power source. The air supply usually comes from a portable [[air compressor]] driven by a [[diesel engine]]. [[Reciprocating compressor]]s were formerly used. The unit comprised a reciprocating compressor driven, through a [[centrifugal clutch]], by a diesel engine. The engine's [[Governor (device)|governor]] provided only two speeds:
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*[http://forums.tripwireinteractive.com/showthread.php?t=34595 KFAntiBlocker] on tripwireinteractive.com
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*[http://forums.tripwireinteractive.com/showthread.php?t=36065 Per Server Stats] on tripwireinteractive.com
  
* idling, when the clutch was disengaged
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==See also==
* maximum, when the clutch was engaged and the compressor was running
 
  
Modern versions use [[Gas compressor|rotary compressors]] and have more sophisticated variable governors. The unit is usually mounted on a [[Trailer (vehicle)|trailer]] and sometimes includes an [[electrical generator]] to supply lights or electric power tools.
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*[[Gametype]]
 
 
Additionally, some users of pneumatic jackhammers may use a [[pneumatic lubricator]] which is placed in series with the air hose powering the air hammer. This increases the life and performance of the jackhammer. Specific lubricant in filled in the pneumatic lubricator. Furthermore, air compressors typically incorporate moisture into the compressed air leading to freeze-ups of the jackhammer or air hammer in cold weather.
 
 
 
===Electromechanical or Electropneumatic===
 
[[Image:Makita demolition breaker.jpg|thumb|left|A single phase demolition breaker.]]
 
{{Expand section|date=June 2010}}
 
 
 
Electric powered tools come in a variety of sizes from about 12lbs - 65lbs.  They require an external power source, but do not require a compressor.  Although in the past these tools did not have the power of an air or pneumatic hammer, this is changing with newer brushless-motor tools coming close to the power of a pneumatic tool and in some cases even matching it.  Electric powered tools are useful for locations where access to a compressor is limited or impractical, such as inside a building, in a crowded constructin site, or in a remote location.
 
 
 
Electropneumatic tools use a variety of chucks for attaching chisels, but the most common are SDS-max, 7/8" Hex, TE-S, and 1-1/8" Hex.  The connection end size is also related to the breaking energy of the tool.  For example, the [[Bosch]] and [[Hilti]] 12lb tools both use SDS-max, while the [[Bosch]], [http://www.toolsofthetrade.net/industry-news.asp?sectionID=1490&articleID=1498786 Hilti], and [[Makita]] 65lbs tools all use 1-1/8" Hex connection.  (See Wikipedia article on [[Hammer drill|hammer drills]] for more on electropneumatic hammering) 
 
 
 
 
 
{{Clear}}
 
 
 
===Hydraulic===
 
[[Image:Excavator jackhammer.jpg|thumb|An excavator-mounted hydraulic jackhammer being used to break up concrete.]]
 
 
 
A hydraulic jackhammer, typically much larger than portable ones, may be fitted to mechanical [[excavator]]s or [[backhoe]]s and is widely used for roadwork, quarrying and general demolition or construction groundwork. These larger machine mounted breakers are known as Rig Mounted, or Machine Mounted Breakers.  Such tools can also be used against vertical walls (or ceilings for that matter), since the vehicles involved are massive enough and powerful enough to exert the forces involved without needing the help of gravity in operating the tool.  Pneumatic or hydraulic tools are particularly likely to be used in [[Mining|mines]] where there is an explosion risk (such as underground [[coal]] mines), since they lack any high-power electrical circuitry that might cause a triggering spark.
 
 
 
[[Breaker (hydraulic)|Hydraulic breakers]] usually use a hydraulic motor driving a sealed pneumatic hammer system, as a hydraulic hammer would develop a low strike speed and transfer unacceptable shock loads to the pump system.
 
 
 
Advances in technology have allowed for portable [[Breaker (hydraulic)|hydraulic breakers]]. The jackhammer is connected with [[hydraulic hose]]s to a portable hydraulic powerpack: either a petrol or diesel engine driving a hydraulic pump; or a [[mini-excavator]] or [[skid-steer]] via a [[power take-off]] driveshaft to the machine's hydraulic system.  Hydraulic power sources are more efficient than air compressors, making the kit smaller, cheaper or more powerful than a comparable pneumatic version.
 
 
 
== Bits (Chisels) ==
 
Bit types include:
 
 
 
* Spade - provides flat finish for concrete or edging in asphalt or dirt
 
* Flat tip - allows direction control or finer edge finish
 
* Point - general breaking
 
* Stake driver - drives concrete form stakes
 
* Scabbler - finishes surface smooth or for cleaning prior to bonding
 
* Flex chisel - flexible metal blade (attached to shank with bolts) for tile removal and scraping
 
* Bushing tool - multiple carbide points for cleaning up seams and knocking down rough spots in concrete
 
 
 
 
 
Chisel sharpening:
 
 
 
 
 
Chisels may be sharpened in a shop or with an angle grinder with grinding disc.  After sharpening, they must then be heat treated to restore the integrity of the steel before use.  As an alternative, [http://www.us.hilti.com/holus/page/module/product/prca_rangedetail.jsf;jsessionid=275BABA29AFA2994F3F8746F685FD98C.node1?lang=en&nodeId=-330229 Hilti] also manufacturers self sharpening polygon and flat chisels in SDS-max, TE-S, and [http://www.us.hilti.com/holus/page/module/product/prca_rangedetail.jsf;jsessionid=275BABA29AFA2994F3F8746F685FD98C.node1?lang=en&nodeId=-330229 1-1/8" Hex] connection ends.
 
 
 
==Health==
 
[[File:Pneumatic drill.jpeg|thumb|A jackhammer with black silencer attached]]
 
 
 
The sound of the hammer blows, combined with the explosive air exhaust, makes pneumatic jackhammers dangerously loud, emitting 100 [[decibel]]s at two meters. Sound-blocking [[earmuffs]] must be worn by the operator to prevent a form of [[Hearing (sense)|hearing]] damage of which [[tinnitus]] is the main [[symptom]]. Most pneumatic jackhammers now have a silencer around the barrel of the tool.
 
 
 
Prolonged exposure to the pronounced [[oscillation|vibration]] set up by the tool can lead to [[blood]]-circulation failures in the [[finger]]s, a condition known as [[white finger]]. Applying athletic tape is not effective in preventing white finger but seems to help alleviate some of its discomfort. Pneumatic drill usage can also lead to a predisposition for development of [[carpal tunnel syndrome]].
 
 
 
Some manufacturers of electro-pneumatic tools now offer vibration reduction systems to reduce the vibration felt by the operator.  For example, the [[Hilti]] [http://www.toolsofthetrade.net/industry-news.asp?sectionID=1490&articleID=1498786 TE 3000-AVR] has approximately the same impact energy of a 60lb pneumatic hammer, but the vibration felt by the operator is significantly less (7 meters per second squared).  Other manufacturers such as [[Makita]], [[DeWalt]] and [[Bosch]] also offer electric tools with vibration dampening.
 
 
 
== References ==
 
[[File:Aa pneumaticdrill hosecoupling 01.jpg|thumb|right|Air hose connection on pneumatic drill]]
 
{{Reflist}}
 
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
{{Commons category|Jackhammers}}
 
*[http://www.explainthatstuff.com/jackhammer.html How jackhammers work]
 
  
[[Category:Cutting tools]]
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*[http://wiki.beyondunreal.com/Legacy:Mutator_Topics Mutator topics] on BeyondUnreal.com
[[Category:Pneumatic tools]]
 
[[Category:Hydraulic tools]]
 
[[Category:Hand-held power tools]]
 
[[Category:Construction equipment]]
 
  
[[cs:Pneumatické kladivo]]
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{{KFDevNavBox}}
[[de:Drucklufthammer]]
 
[[es:Martillo mecánico]]
 
[[eo:Pneŭmata martelo]]
 
[[fr:Marteau-piqueur]]
 
[[it:Martello pneumatico]]
 
[[he:פטיש אוויר]]
 
[[lb:Lofthummer]]
 
[[lt:Pneumatinis plaktukas]]
 
[[nl:Drilboor]]
 
[[pl:Młot pneumatyczny]]
 
[[pt:Britadeira]]
 
[[ru:Отбойный молоток]]
 
[[sk:Pneumatické kladivo]]
 
[[sv:Tryckluftsborr]]
 
[[uk:Відбійний молоток]]
 

Latest revision as of 11:50, 28 November 2012

Killing Floor class Mutator (source)
Object >> Actor >> Info >> Mutator


Description

Taken from UDN:

Mutators are mini-mods. They have limited functionality as defined by the Mutator class. Mutators should follow certain rules - rules that are established by the GameType. If these rules can't be followed or are too limiting, you should probably work on a GameType mod.

The first rule is that Mutators should be able to work with any other Mutator - especially the ones that come with the game. If you write a "Vampire" Mutator that allows the player to drain life from an enemy he shoots, the Mutator should work well if combined with one of the Arena mutators or the No Powerups Mutator. This is one of the beneficial features of the Mutator system. They slightly change (or mutate) gameplay, allowing for interesting combinations.

The second rule is that Mutators should only change gameplay in a slight fashion. Although that's a vague way of putting it, you need to try and restrict your Mutator behavior. Careful Mutator design will increase the chances of your Mutator working with other mods and will decrease your support effort.

The third rule is that Mutators should share resources with other Mutators. If your Mutator implements the ModifyPlayer function, you need to call NextMutator.ModifyPlayer somewhere inside your version of the function. This ensures that any Mutator on the Mutator list after your mod gets a chance to deal with the function call. Failing to do this is poor programming style and not community-friendly.

Mutators provide an easy way to make small - and sometimes larger - changes to a game without having to run an entirely new gametype. They can be used to alter graphical features, add or remove enemies, change the rules, and so on.

Mutator tutorials

List of common mutators

See also

External links